POITOU, region and former province of W. France, now included in the departments of Vendée, Deux-Sèvres, and Vienne. In the Middle Ages Jews lived in at least 20 localities in Poitou, the most important of which were poitiers , Niort, Vitré, Moncontour, Loudun, Bressuire, Lusignan, Montmorillon, and Thouars. Their presence is also recalled by a large number of sites named La Juderie, La Judrie, Les Judes, etc. The earliest evidence of Jewish settlement in Poitou dates from 1134 to 1143, with arrivals from Narbonne. After 1160 Jewish scholars from Poitou took part in the synod of Troyes convened by samuel b. meir and jacob b. meir tam . One takkanah with which the scholars of Poitou were also associated referred to the custom of Narbonne Jewry connected with the dowry. When Poitou passed to English rule, the kings of England provided both individuals and groups of Jews (Niort, 1221) with letters of protection. Under French rule (1224) the Jews of Poitou (like those of Anjou, etc.) were attacked by the crusaders in 1236. Soon after he received Poitou in appanage, alphonse of poitiers threatened the Jews with expulsion, but this was not carried out. In 1268, in order to finance his joining a Crusade, Alphonse had all the Jews of Poitou, as well as all those in his other territories, imprisoned and their belongings seized, extorting a ransom of 8,000 livres for their release. In 1269, following the example of louis IX, he imposed the wearing of the distinctive jewish badge . Although Poitou was incorporated into the kingdom of France in 1270, the Jews there were subjected to special decrees and were finally expelled in 1291, 15 years before their coreligionists in other parts of France. A few of them who returned in 1315 were among the first to be accused (1321) of collusion with the lepers (see france ). An even smaller number of Jews returned after 1359 (or more exactly after 1372 when Poitou was liberated by the English). Some Jews from Comtat Venaissin traded in Poitou during the 18th century. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross, Gal Jud, 451; Finkelstein, Middle Ages, index; Dr. Vincent, in: Revue d'histoire économique et sociale, 18 (1930), 265–313; G. Nahon, in: REJ, 125 (1966), 167–211. (Bernhard Blumenkranz) POKI, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER CHELEBI POKI, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER CHELEBI (16th century), karaite scholar of Constantinople, a nephew of Elijah bashyazi . He traveled widely in order to study Karaite writings. In 1571 he was living at the house of the Karaite nasi in Cairo. In   his Sha'ar Yehudah, on forbidden marriages (published by his son Isaac in Constantinople, 1581), he opposed the modifications introduced in this subject by Joseph ha-Ro'eh and Jeshua b. Judah. Poki is the only Karaite scholar of the period to uphold the rikkuv ("catenary") theory of forbidden marriages. He mentions also a second work, Ve-Zot li-Yhudah, on the determination of the new moon. Jedidiah Solomon of Troki refers in his Appiryon to a prayer book compiled by Poki, as well as works on poetry and grammar. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Neubauer, Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek (1866), 65; I.D.B. Markon, Texte und Untersuchungen (1908), xvii. (Isaak Dov Ber Markon)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Poitou — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Poitou es una antigua provincia de Francia, cuya ciudad capital era Poitiers. Corresponde con los actuales departamentos de la Vendée, Deux Sèvres y la Vienne, al oeste de Francia. La Marisma de Poitevin (en francés …   Wikipedia Español

  • Poitou —   [pwa tu] das, historische Provinz in Westfrankreich, umfasst das fruchtbare, etwa 150 m über dem Meeresspiegel hohe Plateau aus Juragesteinen zwischen dem Armorikanischen und dem Zentralmassiv, das das Pariser und das Aquitanische Becken… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Poitou — Porté notamment dans le Centre (45, 41) et dans les Charentes, désigne en principe celui qui est originaire du Poitou. Les formes Poitout et Poitoux, rencontrées dans l Yonne, devraient avoir le même sens …   Noms de famille

  • Poitou — (spr. Poatuh), ehemalige Landschaft in Frankreich, mit der Hauptstadt Poitiers zwischen Bretagne, Anjou, Touraine, Marche, Angoumais, Saintonge u. dem Atlantischen Ocean; theilte sich in Ober P. (j. Departement Vienne) u. Nieder P. (j. die …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Poitou — (spr. pūatū), ehemalige Provinz im südwestlichen Frankreich, zerfiel in Oberpoitou (das gegenwärtige Depart. Vienne) und Niederpoitou (die Departements Deux Sèvres und Vendée). Hauptstadt war Poitiers. Das Land P. war im Altertum von den… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Poitou — (spr. pŏatuh), ehemal. Provinz des westl. Frankreichs, bildet jetzt die Dep. Vienne, Deux Sèvres und Vendée, zerfiel in Ober und Nieder P.; Hauptstadt Poitiers; 1154 1259 und 1360 71 englisch, seit 1416 bei der Krone Frankreich. – Vgl. Auber… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Poitou — (Poatu), ehemalige Provinz in Frankreich, zwischen Bretagne, Anjou, Touraine, Marche, Angoumois, Saintonge und dem atlant. Ocean, war in Ober und Nieder P. getheilt und hatte Poitiers zur Hauptstadt …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Poitou — [pwȧ to͞o′] historical region of WC France …   English World dictionary

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